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Analysis: Adult-Use Marijuana Sales Yield Over $10 Billion in New Tax Revenue

Washington, DC: State-authorized sales of retail marijuana products have yielded more than $10 billion in new tax revenue, according to an analysis compiled by the Marijuana Policy Project.

"Legalizing cannabis for adults has been a wise investment," authors of the report concluded. "Since 2014 when sales began in Colorado and Washington, legalization policies have provided states a new revenue stream to bolster budgets and fund important services and programs. As of December 2021, states reported a combined total of $10.4 billion in tax revenue from legal, adult-use cannabis sales. In addition to revenue generated for statewide budgets, cities and towns have also generated hundreds of thousands of dollars in new revenue from local adult-use cannabis taxes."

These revenues have been used to fund various state-specific projects, MPP's analysis reported. In Colorado, for instance, over $470 million in cannabis-specific tax revenue has been applied toward public schools. In Washington, some $600 million in revenue has been directed toward public health initiatives, including a fund that provides health insurance to low-income families. In California, over $100 million in revenue has been provided to community investment programs and local nonprofit groups.

In every state permitting adult-use sales, marijuana tax revenues have grown year-over-year.

Full text of the report, "Cannabis Tax Revenue in States that Regulate Cannabis for Adult Use," is available online.


Survey: Many Health Care Professionals Possess a "Poor" Understanding of Cannabis Use for Medical Purposes

Portland, OR: A significant percentage of health care practitioners possess only limited knowledge about the use and efficacy of medical cannabis, according to survey data published in the Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

A team of investigators affiliated with the Oregon Health & Science University surveyed 178 health care professionals (physicians, registered nurses, and nurse practitioners) attending a Continuing Medical Education program on the clinical uses of cannabis. Nearly all of the health professionals surveyed were licensed to practice in either California, Oregon, or Washington – three jurisdictions where medical cannabis access has been legally available for more than two decades.

Researchers reported: "This study found that HCPs' [health care professionals] knowledge about the medical risks and benefits of clinical cannabis, although similar among professions, is generally poor and has specific important gaps. Health care professionals scored an average of only 63.2 percent on direct knowledge tests about clinical cannabis, with no significant differences among professions. Attendees scored highest on questions about laws and regulations (85.7 percent). Mean scores for questions related to all other topics, including risks and harms, pharmacology, pain, multiple sclerosis spasticity, and seizures, were all below 70 percent, equivalent to a C grade."

They added, "Despite more than 95 percent of respondents practicing in states (Oregon, Washington, or California) where clinical cannabis had been legal for more than 20 years and recreational cannabis had been legal for at least two years, their knowledge about clinical cannabis was poor. This supports that wide and prolonged availability of cannabis is not sufficient to accomplish provider knowledge and that more education is needed."

Authors concluded, "The findings of this study support that, despite a growing evidence base, and even after many years of legalization, HCPs including APRNs [advance practice registered nurses] have substantial gaps in their knowledge of the potential risks and benefits associated with the use of cannabis for medical purposes."

The study's conclusions are consistent with those of prior surveys of health care professionals in which most doctors and nurses acknowledge that they are insufficiently trained in issues related to the use of cannabis. Separate survey data published in 2020 also reported that fewer than one-in-five patients believe that their primary care providers are sufficiently knowledgeable about cannabis-specific health-related issues.

Full text of the study, "Cannabis for medical purposes: A cross-sectional analysis of health care professionals' knowledge," appears in the Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners.


Analysis: Frequent Cannabis Use Associated with Lower Incidences of Diabetes Among Women

College Station, TX: Women who frequently consume cannabis are less likely to be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, according to data published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.

Researchers at Texas A&M University assessed the relationship between cannabis use and diabetes in a nationally representative sample of over 15,000 adults.

They reported that women who were frequent cannabis consumers were less than half as likely to be diagnosed with diabetes as compared to female non-users. No differences were observed among women who only consumed cannabis occasionally.

Researchers did not identify a similar inverse relationship among males. They concluded, "Further studies are needed to explore the sex-based heterogeneity-and individual and contextual factors responsible-in the association between cannabis use and diabetes mellitus."

Several previous studies have identified a correlation between frequent cannabis use and lower odds of adult-onset diabetes, while clinical trial data has shown that the administration of THCV is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

Full text of the study, "Sex differences in the association between cannabis use and diabetes mellitus among US adults: The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2013-2018," appears in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research.


Study: Labeling of Commercially Available CBD Products Often Inaccurate

Madison, WI: Commercially available CBD-infused products typically contain percentages of cannabidiol that differ significantly from the information provided on their labels, according to data published in the journal Epilepsy & Behavior.

A team of investigators affiliated with the University of Wisconsin, School of Pharmacy performed laboratory analyses on a variety of commercially available CBD products, including infused oils, beverages, and edibles.

Consistent with numerous other analyses of unregulated, commercially available CBD-branded products, investigators reported that the percentage of CBD available in many of the products tested "varies largely from their label claims." CBD-infused beverage products were most likely to contain CBD percentages that differed from their labels.

More than three years following the passage of federal legislation legalizing hemp production, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has yet to promulgate rules regulating the marketing and sale of commercial products containing hemp-derived CBD. Speaking in October at the National Industrial Hemp Business Summit in Washington, DC, FDA representative Gail Sipes said that the agency cannot move forward with regulations without more data on the safety of CBD products. At that time, she reiterated the agency's position that companies that market CBD-infused products as either food products or as dietary supplements are violating the Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics Act.

In a report provided by the FDA to Congress in 2020, the agency said that regulating over-the-counter CBD products presents a unique challenge because the substance is already available as a FDA-approved medicine (Epidiolex).

NORML and other groups have consistently urged the FDA to provide regulatory guidelines overseeing the production, testing, labeling, and marketing of hemp-derived CBD products.

Full text of the study, "Analysis of cannabidiol (CBD) and THC in nonprescription consumer products: Implications for patients and practitioners," appears inEpilepsy & Behavior.

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