#NORML #News Source: @norml @WeedConnection Posted By: email@example.com media :: news - Tue, 13 Jun 2017 04:20:21 PST
Review Identifies 140 Controlled Clinical Trials Related to Cannabis
Hurth, Germany: Scientists have conducted over 140 controlled clinical trials since 1975 assessing the safety and efficacy of either whole-plant cannabis or specific cannabinoids, according to a literature review published in the journal Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences.
A pair of German researchers identified 140 clinical trials involving an estimated 8,000 participants. Of these, the largest body of literature focuses on the use of cannabis or cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic or neuropathic pain. Authors identified 35 controlled studies, involving 2,046 subjects, assessing the use of marijuana or cannabinoids in pain management. In January, the National Academy of Sciences acknowledged that "conclusive or substantial evidence" exists for cannabis' efficacy in patients suffering from chronic pain.
Cannabinoids have also been well studied as anti-emetic agents and as appetite stimulants. Researchers identified 43 trials evaluating marijuana or its components for these purposes, involving a total of 2,498 patients. They identified an additional 14 trials examining the role of cannabis or cannabis-derived extracts for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Researchers also identified several additional trials evaluating the use of cannabis or cannabinoids for a number of other diseases, including Crohn's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Parkinson's disease, glaucoma, and epilepsy.
A 2014 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that pharmaceutical drugs typically gain FDA approval on the basis of one or two pivotal clinical trials.
Full text of the study, "Medicinal uses of marijuana and cannabinoids," appears in Critical Reviews of Plant Sciences.
Study: Cannabis Extracts Associated With Reduced ADHD Symptoms
London, United Kingdom: The administration of whole-plant cannabis extracts is associated with improvements in cognition and behavior in subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to clinical trial data published online ahead of print in the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology.
British scientists conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of cannabis extracts in 30 adults with ADHD. Treatment was associated "with a nominally significant improvement in hyperactivity/impulsivity and a trend for improvement in inattention. There were further indications for improvement in activity and cognitive performance, and emotional lability."
Investigators concluded: "ADHD may represent a subgroup of individuals that gain cognitive enhancement and reduction of ADHD symptoms from the use of cannabinoids. These findings provide preliminary evidence using an experimental design for the self-medication hypothesis of cannabis use in ADHD; and support the need for further research into the effects of cannabinoids on ADHD symptoms and impairments."
Full text of the study, "Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial," appears in European Neuropsychopharmacology.
Maryland: Expungement Bill Becomes Law Absent Governor's Signature
Annapolis, MD: Legislation permitting certain marijuana offenders to petition for an expungement of their criminal convictions became law on May 27. Republican Gov. Larry Hogan took no action on the bill.
Senate Bill 949 permits those previously convicted of a marijuana possession offense to petition to have their criminal record expunged. The law takes effect on October 1, 2017.
In 2014, Maryland lawmakers decriminalized offenses involving the possession of up to ten grams of cannabis.
Nevada: Governor Signs Legislation Amending Carboxy-THC Per Se Law
Carson City, NV: Governor Brian Sandoval has signed legislation, Assembly Bill 135, amending the state's traffic safety law so that it is no longer a per se offense for a driver to operate a motor vehicle with trace levels of carboxy-THC in his or her urine. Carboxy-THC is a non-psychoactive metabolite of THC that may be present in urine for weeks or months after past cannabis use.
The new law takes effect on July 1, 2017. It keeps in place per se thresholds for the presence of both THC (at levels of 2ng/ml or above) and 11-hydroxy-THC (at levels of 5ng/ml or above) in blood. According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, "It is inadvisable to try and predict effects based on blood THC concentrations alone." NORML opposes the imposition of such thresholds.
In 2014, the Arizona Supreme Court struck down legislation classifying the presence of carboxy-THC in blood or urine as a per se traffic safety violation, finding that the imposition of such an arbitrary standard "leads to absurd results."
Montana: Governor Signs Laws Establishing Medical Marijuana Tax
Helena, MT: Governor Steve Bullock has signed legislation, Senate Bill 333, establishing new regulations for the state's medical cannabis program and imposing first-ever taxes on gross cannabis sales.
The new law, which takes effect on July 1, imposes a four percent tax on gross sales, payable by cannabis providers. The tax drops to two percent after June 30, 2018. Taxes will be earmarked for the newly created 'Medical marijuana state revenue account.'
Other provisions in the law establish regulatory oversight for licensed providers/manufacturers, dispensaries, and testing labs.
Montana voters in November approved an initiative expanding the state's 2004 law in a manner that for the first time allows for the licensed production and dispensing of medical cannabis.